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Quick Questions (RL Science)
Posted: Posted October 19th, 2018 by chiarizio
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Are elephants digigrade? Or plantigrade? Or unguligrade?
If they are ungulants, are they even-toed like cows? Or odd-toed like horses?

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Evolutionarily, they are related to ungulates, however, from looking at their skeleton, it seems that they are digigrade, but with a fleshy cushion at the back of the foot.

Posted October 20th, 2018 by bloodb4roses
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Thanks. I asked because I had just seen a cross-section of an elephant foot. It looked like the bone was digigrade but the flesh was plantigrade, if that makes any sense. But I seemed to remember that they were related to ungulates, more than other digitigrade species.

Posted October 20th, 2018 by chiarizio
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I have been looking into certain questions.
How did the first viruses evolve?
Did they evolve from microbes with ribosomes?
How did ribosomes evolve?
Is there evidence that an extinct fourth domain of cellular life contributed to the rise of eukaryotes?
Yeast are eukaryotes. But they aren’t protists — or are they?
Did yeast descend from metazoans multicellular ancestors?
Are yeast fungi?
All the questions are quick. I suspect none of the answers are.

(Edited 12/15/18 to correct misuse of “metazoan”)

Posted November 20th, 2018 by chiarizio
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After refreshing myself on some things I've forgotten or weren't sure of in bio, I think I found answers that fit a paragraph or less

I have been looking into certain questions.
How did the first viruses evolve?

We're not sure but the leading idea is that they were derived from free floating DNA or RNA that somehow could get into early cells and be copied. Whether protein sheaths were an early adaptation or later on is also unknown.

Did they evolve from microbes with ribosomes?

This is possible since there are some viruses that show more "lifelike" attributes like metabolizing sugars, but unlikely. It's more likely that they were derived from a left over kind of "proto-life".

How did ribosomes evolve?
Is there evidence that an extinct fourth domain of cellular life contributed to the rise of eukaryotes?

I haven't heard anything about this but recently scientist found out some lifeforms that have been known since the 1800's are at least as different from all other groups of life known to us as those groups are to each other.

Yeast are eukaryotes. But they aren’t protists — or are they? ... Are yeast fungi?

Yeast are single celled, single nucleated fungii.

Did yeast descend from metazoans?

No, they are not animals, and metazoans are a subgroup under animals.

Posted November 21st, 2018 by bloodb4roses
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Thanks, bb4r. I’ve kept looking myself. Some of what I’ve found matches exactly what you say. Lots of it matches, but with qualifications. A bit seems to be stuff you didn’t know when you posted. More than that is stuff I didn’t know until you posted.

I misused the term metazoan.

I was actually wondering whether yeasts’ ancestors might have been multicellular fungi.
Recent(?) experiments making “snowflake yeast” have attracted alternate interpretations; even among the scientists doing the experiments.


Have you heard about those?

You seem to be able to find stuff marginally faster and marginally more uptodate than me.

Posted November 22nd, 2018 by chiarizio
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I hadn't heard of those experiments but I'll look into them soon. Good to know.

Posted November 23rd, 2018 by bloodb4roses
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Thanks!

Posted November 23rd, 2018 by chiarizio
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From an abstract I found and skimmed over, it looked to be basically what I was expecting: The scientists knocked out a gene known to regulate mother-daughter cell separation and tested how this affected both individual cells and the colonies produced as a whole.

One interesting thing was that even though the cells didn't tend to split from each other often, when they did, they favored creating colonies that were uniform genetically, unlike aggregate colonies which would split off cell blobs that were non-uniform. Because of this uniformity in colonies, traits that helped the colony as a whole, but not individuals could then be acted on and be selected for.

I think they could do this with some other single celled life but yeast might have the most easily identifiable gene expression for clean fission.

Posted November 23rd, 2018 by bloodb4roses
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Facsinating! (As my father used to say.)
Thanks!

Posted November 24th, 2018 by chiarizio
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I currently have a binary star in my world. I was think of making two or three moons, but I have not spent that much time on it. However, I just thought of an interesting twist: what if my world had a binary star and a binary planet? I wonder how differently life would evolve on either. Food for thought.

Posted November 25th, 2018 by bbbourq
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bbbourq
 

I currently have a binary star in my world. I was think of making two or three moons, but I have not spent that much time on it. However, I just thought of an interesting twist: what if my world had a binary star and a binary planet? I wonder how differently life would evolve on either. Food for thought.


I think it would be a definite boon to the development of space-travel.
I don’t know about life up til then though.

But think how much easier it would be to stay motivated, if first you could colonize another habitable world by means of the equivalent of a moon-shot?
And then yet another by means of the equivalent of a mission to Venus or Mars?

And then another by means of going to a planet of a sister star? Not as far away as Alpha Centauri; but rather, maybe about five times as far away as Saturn or Neptune or Pluto?

Give both of the stars habitable planets. One should have a double-planet of which both spheres are habitable, one being your con people’s home world; one should have a giant planet with two habitable moons.

———

I’ve written about some of these ideas here on the CWBB not too many months ago.* You’re welcome to use, or disregard, as much of it as you choose. I mostly talked about eclipses and seasons and day-vs-night, if i recall correctly. I don’t remember having much worthwhile to say about evolution.

*this past June of 2018.
http://gtx0.com/merge/post/21030&highlight=binary+double#21030

Posted November 25th, 2018 by chiarizio
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I think it would be a definite boon to the development of space-travel.
I don’t know about life up til then though.

But think how much easier it would be to stay motivated, if first you could colonize another habitable world by means of the equivalent of a moon-shot?
And then yet another by means of the equivalent of a mission to Venus or Mars?

And then another by means of going to a planet of a sister star? Not as far away as Alpha Centauri; but rather, maybe about five times as far away as Saturn or Neptune or Pluto?

Give both of the stars habitable planets. One should have a double-planet of which both spheres are habitable, one being your con people’s home world; one should have a giant planet with two habitable moons.

———

I’ve written about some of these ideas here on the CWBB not too many months ago.* You’re welcome to use, or disregard, as much of it as you choose. I mostly talked about eclipses and seasons and day-vs-night, if i recall correctly. I don’t remember having much worthwhile to say about evolution.

*this past June of 2018.
http://gtx0.com/merge/post/21030&highlight=binary+double#21030


That is great feedback! I really enjoyed the notions dual habitable planets and a large planet with two habitable moons. Man, that would make some awesome views! I will take a look at some of your writings. Thank you again.

Posted December 1st, 2018 by bbbourq
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bbbourq
 

@bbbourq, about the double planets and double stars etc., what if any ideas are aborning about the evolution of life, specifically intelligent life and culture and civilization, on such a conworld?

Posted December 1st, 2018 by chiarizio
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Do we have a map of the far side of the Moon?

Posted December 15th, 2018 by chiarizio
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Do we have a map of the far side of the Moon?


We have actual pictures. While we only see one side of the moon from Earth, the far side has been imaged while it faced the sun.

Posted December 15th, 2018 by bloodb4roses
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Thanks.
I thought I remembered seeing it before.*
I wonder, What sort of website or url or search string should I use to look it up?
Do you suppose National Geographic has a map of it available online?

*IIRC it looked a lot more “beaten up” than the near side does!

—————

(Maybe they’ve also mapped Mars?)

—————

I’m thinking we ought to make links to maps of Luna and Mars, and paleo-Earth, part of our “resources”, if we can find them!

Both Luna and Mars are now tectonically “dead”; but the Earth 🌍 🌏 🌏 used to look different, and will look different in the future. I know I once saw a tool that would let the user raise or lower Sea-level by certain amounts, and show the hypothetical results.

[edit]:
Googled images “maps of the far side of the Moon” and found great beauty!
And more with google-images for “maps of Mars”.
Just took a shot at images-googling “maps of paleo Earth” and really liked what I found!

Gosh, that was a lot easier than it used to be a few years ago!

I’m about to imageGoogle “maps of future Earth” and see what turns up.

Not the same kind of impressive; but still, possibly useful in intriguing ways!

Googling for videos of such maps, also looks interesting!

I can’t figure out how to link to them from here, though. 😕

====—————+++++—————=====—————+++++—————=====

Thanks again, @bb4r!

Posted December 16th, 2018 by chiarizio
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The most recent lander on Mars is looking into whether Mars really is tectonicly dead or not so there's some chance it's still active, if only mildly. It'll take a while for the lander to set up, and it can't move like the rovers, but apparently it was right on target for where they wanted it anyway!

Posted December 17th, 2018 by bloodb4roses
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Thanks!

Posted December 17th, 2018 by chiarizio
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I realized I actually have a map of Mars hanging on my wall! 😳

Posted December 20th, 2018 by chiarizio
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